rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
archive-name: cooking/faq 
maintained-by: victor sack <cooking_...@mac.com> 
 
last updated 20 may, 2005 
 
- section 9.8 (mailing lists) - chile-heads mailing list information 
corrected 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|copyright © victor sack 2003-2005, copyright © mary frye and victor | 
|sack 1999-2003, copyright © amy gale 1993-1999, copyright © cindy | 
|kandolf 1992-1993. all rights reserved. portions copyright © by | 
|their particular authors. | 
| | 
|this faq may be cited as "the rec.food.cooking faq and conversion file| 
|as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu faq archives as /cooking/faq" | 
| | 
|permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | 
|substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | 
|explicitly not granted. permission to distribute free of charge or | 
|with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | 
|provided credits remain intact. this paragraph and the two above | 
|must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent | 
|use of the material. | 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
an easier-to-navigate frames version of the faq is available at 
http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html 
 
welcome to the rec.food.cooking faq list and conversion helper! 
 
the primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different 
countries communicate with one another. the problem is that 
measurements and terms for food vary from country to country, 
even if both countries speak english. 
 
however, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list. 
you can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. try 
not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the 
product. if you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication 
of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume. 
 
a few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery 
store is called a kiwi fruit. whoever said "a pint's a pound the world 
around" must have believed the us was on another planet. and cast iron 
pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion! 
 
if you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read 
the guides to the net and the net etiquette which are posted to 
news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly. 
they are also available via anonymous ftp from 
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/ 
or from 
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/. 
in particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following 
postings: 
 
what is usenet? 
a primer on how to work with the usenet community 
answers to frequently asked questions about usenet 
rules for posting to usenet 
emily postnews answers your questions on netiquette 
hints on writing style for usenet 
advertising on usenet: how to do it, how not to do it 
how to find the right place to post 
 
the moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent web site 
with helpful links to basic usenet information. the site is at 
http://members.fortunecity.com/nnqweb/nnqlinks.html. 
 
the traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at 
http://members.fortunecity.com/nnqweb/nquote.html. 
 
another excellent introduction to usenet is available from 
http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html. 
 
you should be familiar with acronyms like faq, ftp and imho, as well as 
know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings. 
 
this faq is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers, 
rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. all posts to news.answers are 
archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via 
anonymous ftp from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. those 
without ftp access should send e-mail to mail-ser...@rtfm.mit.edu with 
"send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how 
to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail. 
 
this faq was initially written by cindy kandolf, and has been extended 
and maintained by amy gale since 1993. in august 1999, maryf and victor 
sack have taken over the faq maintaining. in july 2003, victor sack 
became the sole maintainer. the faq has always benefited from 
contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. credits appear at 
the end. 
 
each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then 
the section number. this should make searching for a specific section 
easy. 
 
any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have 
many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it, 
and see. 
 
comments, corrections and changes to: 
victor sack <cooking_...@mac.com> 
 
---------------------------------------- 
list of answers 
 
1   substitutions and equivalents
1.1   flours
1.2   leavening agents
1.3   dairy products
1.4   starches
1.5   sugar and other sweeteners
1.6   fats
1.7   chocolates
1.8   meats
1.9   salt
2   usukmetric conversions
2.1   oven temperatures
2.2   food equivalencies
2.2.1   flours
2.2.2   cereals
2.2.3   sugars
2.2.4   fats and cheeses
2.2.5   vegetables and fruit
2.2.6   dried fruit and nuts
2.2.7   preserves
2.2.8   egg sizes
2.3   american liquid measures
2.4   british liquid measures
2.5   british short cuts
2.6   energy output of cooktops
2.7   general conversion tables
2.7.1   international liquid measurements
2.7.2   weight
2.7.3   us liquid measurements
2.7.4   miscellaneous
2.7.5   weightvolume conversion chart
2.8   some australian conversions
2.8.1   metric cups
2.8.2   metric spoons
2.9   catties
2.10   some old measurements
2.11   authorities
3   glossary of culinary terms
4   cooking methods
4.1   poaching
4.2   frying
4.3   sauting (and deglazing)
4.4   broiling
4.5   caramelising (of onions)
4.6   braising
4.7   cooking with alcohol
4.8   roasting
5   distilled wisdom on equipment
5.1   woks
5.2   cast iron
6   whats all this about xxxx?
7   this has come up once too often
8   recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
8.1   recipe archives
8.2   other cooking/food sites
9   food newsgroups and mailing lists
9.1   recfoodcooking
9.2   recfoodrecipes
9.3   recfooddrink, rec.food.restaurants
9.4   recfoodveg
9.5   recfoodvegcooking
9.6   recfoodpreserving
9.7   also
9.8   mailing lists
10   other culinary faqs
10.1   foods
10.2   beverages
10.3   religion, lifestyle and special diets
10.4   miscellaneous
10.5   humour
11   quotunofficialquot rec.food.cooking web site
12   sources
12.1   contributors
12.2   bibliography
 
 
1   substitutions and equivalents
 
this section contains information on where substitutions can be made, 
and what they can be made with. 
 
 
1.1   flours
 
us all-purpose flour and uk plain-flour can be substituted for one 
another without adjustment. us cake flour is lighter than these. it is 
not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute 
all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour 
and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour. 
 
self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 
teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. some brands in some regions don't 
contain salt. 
 
us whole wheat flour is interchangeable with uk wholemeal flour. 
 
 
1.2   leavening agents
 
baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. it must be mixed with acidic 
ingredients to work. baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered 
acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients. 
 
 
1.3   dairy products
 
evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are 
thick and a weird colour... but are not, as i thought when i was small, 
the same thing. sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed 
with sugar or another sweetener already. it isn't found everywhere, but 
this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons 
dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. when mixed, add 3/4 cup 
granulated sugar. if you're not sure whether it is available in your 
market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "good luck" 
is apparently a common brand in north america. 
 
if a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour 
milk as a substitute. for each cup you need, take one tablespoon of 
vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. don't 
stir. let it stand for five minutes before using. 
 
the minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream: 
(uk) (us) 
clotted cream 55% 
double cream 48% 
heavy cream 36% 
whipping cream 35% 30% 
whipped cream 35% 
single cream 18% (=light cream) 
half cream 12% (=half and half*) 
 
* half and half has only 10% butterfat in british columbia. 
 
for the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3. 
 
quark (aka quarg) [7] 
a soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream, 
quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. though the calories 
are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat quark is richer than 
that of lowfat sour cream. it has a milder flavour and richer texture 
than lowfat yoghurt. quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to 
top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes 
including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces. 
 
 
1.4   starches
 
uk cornflour is the same as us cornstarch. potato flour, despite its 
name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. it 
often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa. 
 
in the us, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. if in doubt about 
which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it 
to you! a couple of rules of thumb: 
- in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch 
- as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground 
cornmeal 
 
cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour! 
what one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to 
cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much. 
 
polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be 
used to mean plain cornmeal. beware. 
 
if you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount 
of all-purpose/plain flour. however, unless whatever you're adding it 
to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy. 
 
 
1.5   sugar and other sweeteners
 
uk castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than us granulated sugar. 
there is a product in the us called superfine sugar, which is about the 
same as uk castor/caster sugar. it is called "berry sugar" in british 
columbia. usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for 
castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but i've got reports of times this 
didn't work so well! as usual, give the recipe a trial run with the 
substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect. 
 
(us) confectioner's sugar is (uk/aust/nz) icing sugar. sometimes these 
are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch). 
this can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan. 
 
corn syrup is common in the us but not always elsewhere. sugar (golden) 
syrup can be substituted. 
 
corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. light corn syrup is 
just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. some people have 
substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in anzac biscuits and found 
it successful. a common us brand is karo. 
 
golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane 
sugar refining. the taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight 
acidic, metallic component. lyle's is a common brand spoken about in 
rec.food.cooking, the new zealand brand name is chelsea. 
 
if desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2 
parts sugar, 1 part water. this could be messy. you may want to thin 
it out with water. again, you may want to try this out on your own 
before making something for a special occasion. 
 
black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical. 
 
 
1.6   fats
 
shortening is solid, white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. (a 
popular brand name is crisco, and many people call all shortening 
crisco.) it is common in the us, tougher to find in some other parts of 
the globe. in my experience, you can usually but not always substitute 
butter or margarine for shortening. the result will have a slightly 
different texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, 
chocolate chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). sometimes this 
doesn't work too well. not to sound like a broken record but - try it 
out before an important occasion. 
 
copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and 
used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and 
left to set. 
 
lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it 
makes very flaky pastry. 
 
deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. butter 
and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil. 
corn and peanut oils are both good. 
 
 
1.7   chocolates
 
if you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three 
tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat 
(preferably oil) for each one ounce square. 
 
us dark chocolate is the same as uk plain chocolate, that is, the 
darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also 
called bittersweet). what is called milk chocolate in the uk is called 
milk chocolate in the us, too, but many people simply refer to it as 
"chocolate". the stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is 
the us dark or uk plain. "bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the uk term 
for high quality plain chocolate. 
 
some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark," 
"semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (sarotti is one), but they seem to be 
minor variations on a theme. 
 
chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates, 
because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting. 
 
 
1.8   meats
 
if a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use cornish game hens 
 
 
1.9   salt
 
there are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt. 
they are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. table 
salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. sea salt 
is extracted from evaporated sea water. 
 
from these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing 
somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. some of 
them are listed below. 
 
- table salt. it is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt) 
and often contains anti-caking agents. 
 
- kosher salt. called so, because it is used for koshering purposes, 
i.e., drawing blood from meat. it is a coarse salt which generally 
contains no additives. because of the large size of the crystals, about 
twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste 
intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. many people 
prefer it to the regular table salt. 
 
- pickling salt. it is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and 
canning. like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as 
anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine. 
 
- sel gris. grey sea salt. this kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining 
various minerals. produced near the town of guérande in brittany, 
france. it is said to smell of the sea. generally used for seasoning 
already cooked dishes. 
 
- fleur de sel. a very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but 
creamy-white in colour. harvested from the thin white film that forms 
on the surface of the salt marshes in brittany. said to be prized by 
some french chefs. some other people consider it a marketing gimmick. 
also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes. 
 
- indian black salt (kala namak). brown-to-black in colour, it has a 
smoky, sulphuric flavour. used in some indian dishes. 
 
- hawaiian alaea salt. it takes its name and a reddish colour from the 
red clay (alaea) found along the shores. it is also generally used for 
seasoning already cooked dishes. 
 
- rock salt. greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing 
many minerals and impurities. supposed to be inedible, it is used in 
ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads. 
 
 
2   usukmetric conversions
 
some of these tables were combined from various sources by andrew 
mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included caroline knight 
cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, fruitbat and the new york city library desk 
reference. other tables were compiled from a variety of sources. 
corrections and additions welcomed! 
 
 
2.1   oven temperatures
 
an approximate conversion chart(p):- 
 
electric gas mark description 
 
fahrenheit celcius 
 
  225f 110°c 1/4 very cool/very slow
  250f 130°c 1/2
  275f 140°c 1 cool
  300f 150°c 2
  325f 170°c 3 very moderate
  350f 180°c 4 moderate
  375f 190°c 5
  400f 200°c 6 moderately hot
  425f 220°c 7 hot
  450f 230°c 8
  475f 240°c 9 very hot
 
 
2.2   food equivalencies
 
sometimes the sources did not agree... i've given both:- 
 
british measure american equivalent 
 
 
2.2.1   flours
 
  flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
  selfraisingunbleached unbleached white
4   ozp 1 cup
5   ozk
  wholemealstoneground whole wheat
6   ozk 1 cup
  cornflour cornstarch
4-1/2 oz.  (p) 1 cup
5.3 oz.  (k)
  yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
6   ozp 1 cup
  rye flour rye flour
6   ozp 1 cup
 
 
2.2.2   cereals
 
  pearl barley pearl barley
7   ozp 1 cup
  ricebulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
  berries
7   ozk 1 cup
  semolinaground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
6   ozp 1 cup
  fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
  cake crumbs cake crumbs
2   ozp 1 cup
  dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
4   ozp 1 cup
  porridge oats rolled oats
3-1/2   ozp 1 cup
 
 
2.2.3   sugars
 
  lightdark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
8   ozp 1 cup (firmly packed)
  castorcastergranulated sugar granulated sugar
7-1/2   ozp 1 cup
  icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
4-1/2   ozp 1 cup
 
 
2.2.4   fats and cheeses
 
  butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
  fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
1   ozp 2 tablespoons
8   ozp 1 cup
  grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
4   ozp 1 cup
1   lbk 4 - 5 cups (packed)
 
 
2.2.5   vegetables and fruit
 
  onion onion
1 small  to med 1 cup chopped
  shelled peas shelled peas
4   ozp 3/4 cup
  cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
4   ozp 1 cup
  celery celery
4 stick  1 cup (chopped)
  chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
7   ozp 1 cup
  button mushrooms button mushrooms
3 - 4   ozp 1 cup
  chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
2   ozp 1/3 cup
  blackredcurrantsbilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
4   ozp 1 cup
  raspberriesstrawberries raspberries/strawberries
5   ozp 1 cup
 
dried beans: 
black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ 
white white 
3 1/2 oz(k) 1/2 cup 
 
 
2.2.6   dried fruit and nuts, etc.
 
  currantssultanasraisins currants/sultanas/raisins/
  chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
5 - 6   ozp 1 cup
2   ozk - raisins) 1/3 cup
  glace cherries candied cherries
8   ozp 1 cup
  sesame seeds sesame seeds
3-1/2 oz.  3/4 cup
  whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
5   ozp 1 cup
  ground almonds ground almonds
4   ozp 1 cup
  chopped nuts chopped nuts
2   ozk 1/3 to 1/2 cup
 
nut butters: 
peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc. 
8 oz(k) 1 cup 
 
 
2.2.7   preserves
 
  clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
  molassesblack treacle molasses/black treacle
12   ozp 1 cup
  maplecorn syrup maple/corn syrup
11   ozp 1 cup
  jammarmaladejelly jam/marmalade/jelly
5 - 6   ozp 1/2 cup
 
 
2.2.8   egg sizes
 
according to the beis (british egg information service) web site, eggs 
in the uk are now sold in four different sizes: small, medium, large and 
very large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7). 
 
uk egg sizes 
 
new size weight old size 
 
very large 73g +over size 0 
size 1 
 
large 63 - 73g size 1 
size 2 
size 3 
 
medium 53 - 63g size 3 
size 4 
size 5 
 
small 53g +under size 5 
size 6 
size 7 
 
us egg sizes 
 
egg sizes average weight 
 
jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g) 
extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g) 
large 2 oz (57g) 
medium 1 3/4 oz (50g) 
small 1 1/2 oz (43g) 
peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g) 
 
 
2.3   american liquid measures
 
1   liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
1   dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
1 cup  237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
1 Tbsp  15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
1   fluid ounce 30 ml
 
 
2.4   british liquid measures
 
1 pint  568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
1   breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
1   tea cup 1/3 pint
1 Tbsp  15 ml
1   dessertspoon 10 ml
1 tsp  5 ml 1/3 tablespoon
 
and from 
"mastering the art of french cooking". penguin uk, issue 1961 
uk uk oz metric ml us oz 
 
1 quart  40 1140 38.5
1 pint  20 570
1 cup  10
1   gill 5
1   fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
1   tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
1   dsp 1/3 10
1 tsp  1/6 5
 
 
2.5   british short cuts (s)
 
cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons 
cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons 
coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons 
flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons 
sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons 
(granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons 
(icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons 
syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons 
 
 
2.6   energy output of cooktops
 
from a post on rec.food.cooking by andrew nicholson 
 
btu - british thermal unit 
 
btu x 1054 = joules 
watts x seconds = joules 
 
btu = watts x (seconds/1054) = watts x 3.415 
 
gas cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 btu up 
to 12,000 btu. 
 
electric cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts. 
 
to help you compare gas burners to electric elements: 
 
  btu watts
 
100   35
200   70 <- gas burners lowest setting
3400   1000
6500   1900
8000   2300 <- most electric tops stop here
10000   2900
12000   3500
 
 
2.7   general conversion tables
 
some general tables for volume and weight conversions 
(mostly by cindy kandolf) 
 
 
2.7.1   international liquid measurements
 
standard cup tablespoon teaspoon 
 
canada 250ml 15ml 5ml 
australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml 
new zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml 
uk 250ml 15ml 5ml 
 
 
2.7.2   weight
 
1 oz.  = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
1 lb.  = 454 g
1 kg  = 2.2 pounds
 
 
2.7.3   us liquid measurements
 
1   litre = 1.057 quarts
2.1 pint 
1 quart  = 0.95 litre
1 gal.  3.8 litres
1/8 cup  = 2 tablespoons
1/4 cup  = 4 tablespoons
1/3   quot = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
1/2   quot = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
2/3   quot = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
3/4   quot = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
7/8   quot = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
1 cup  = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
1   dl = 2/5 cup
  6 to 7 tablespoons
 
 
2.7.4   miscellaneous
 
1   uk pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
1   uk liquid oz is 0.96 us liquid oz.
 
a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is 
1/2 cup us. 
each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in 
us recipes weighs about 50 g. 
there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter 
 
gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. the 
following is from a post by sophie laplante. 
 
it looks like there are different size sheets, and different size 
packets (us vs europe). so the only way to go is to convert by weight. 
in france, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the uk 
it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the us. 
 
one knox powdered gelatine envelope (us) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams. 
 
1 (us) envelope = 7 g, 
= 7 1-gram sheets, 
= 4 1.66-gram sheets, 
= 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets. 
 
1 (europe) envelope = 11 g 
= 11 1-gram sheets, 
= 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets 
= 5 2-gram sheets 
 
 
2.7.5   weightvolume conversion chart
 
this chart was once posted by t. terrell banks who got it from a now 
forgotten source. it was then preserved on william chuang's web site. 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 
almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 
bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 
bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 
bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 
basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 
beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
biscuit mix (bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 
brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 
bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 
cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 
candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 
cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
cereal, rice krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 
cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 
cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 
chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 
chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 
chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 
cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 
coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 
cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 
cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 
crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 
eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 
flour, deaf smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
flour, u.k. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 
flour, u.s. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 
flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 
ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 
kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 
mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 
mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 
milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 
mushrooms, chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 
mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 
mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 
mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 
mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 
oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 
oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 
oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 
olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 
olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 
pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 
pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 
pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 
peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 
pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 
poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 
potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 
potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 
rice, uncooked basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 
rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 
salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 
sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
 
g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/ 
substance ml g tsp tbsp floz cup lb kg 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 
sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 
sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 
sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 
sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 
sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 
syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 
tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 
tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 
tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 
turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 
vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 
walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 
walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 
walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 
water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 
wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 
wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 
yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4 
 
 
2.8   some australian conversions
 
from a post on rec.food.recipes by stephanie da silva 
 
 
2.8.1   metric cups
 
metric cups grams ounces 
(approx) (approx) 
 
1 cup  butter 250 8 3/4
1 cup  biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
1 cup  breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
1 cup  breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
1 cup  cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
1 cup  cocoa 110 3 3/4
1 cup  cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
1 cup  cornflakes 30 1
1 cup  rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
1 cup  coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
1 cup  dried split peas, lentils 200 7
1 cup  dried fruit 160 5 3/4
1 cup  dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
1 cup  flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
1 cup  flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
1 cup  golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
1 cup  jam 330 11 1/2
1 cup  nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
1 cup  oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
1 cup  rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
1 cup  rice, long grain 200 7
1 cup  salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
1 cup  castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
1 cup  soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
1 cup  icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5
 
1 cup  = 250 ml
 
 
2.8.2   metric spoons
 
metric spoons grams ounces 
 
1   level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
1   level tablespoon baking powder,
  bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
  gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
1   level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
  custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
1   level tablespoon golden syrup,
  treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
1   level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
1   level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3
 
1 Tbsp  = 20 ml
1 tsp  = 5 ml
 
 
2.9   catties
 
  in ancient china,
1   catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.
 
in modern china, this went with kilograms and stuff. to make the 
transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of 
catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound ) 
 
however, old books from hong kong and taiwan still use the 
old catty = 600 grams. 
 
 
2.10   some old measurements
 
this chart appears on several web sites. it is unclear where it 
originated. 
 
1   wine glass 1/4 cup
1   jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
1   gill 1/2 cup
1   tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
1   coffee cup a scant cup
1   tumbler 1 cup
1 peck  2 gallons - dry
1 pinch  or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
  two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
1/2 pinch  what can be picked up between thumb and one
  finger
1   salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
1   kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
1   dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
1   spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
1   saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
1   penny weight 1/20 ounce
1   drachma 1/8 ounce
 
 
2.11   authorities
 
k = mollie katzen from "still life with menu" 
p = marguerite patten from "cookery in colour" 
rd = forward to british edition of "the rotation diet" 
s = ursula sedgwick from "my fun-to-cook-book" 
 
 
3   glossary of culinary terms
 
adobo - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of mexican or 
filipino origin. common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of 
vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. in the mexican 
incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar. 
the filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce. 
 
ahi (ah-hee) - the hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna. 
 
aji - aji (singular form) is what the peruvians call chile peppers. the 
species in particular is capsicum baccatum. 
 
allspice - the dried, unripe berry of a small tree. it is available 
ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, 
casseroles, cakes & puddings. also known as jamaica pepper. 
 
amazu shoga (ah-mah-zoo shoh-gah) - thinly sliced or shredded fresh 
ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. it's beige or pink, used as 
a garnish for many japanese dishes, particularly sushi. also known as 
gari. 
 
arborio rice (ar-boh-ree-oh) - a high-starch italian rice shorter and 
fatter than any other short-grain rice. it's used to make risotto, a 
creamy rice dish. 
 
asian pear - ripe asian pears (also called chinese pears and apple 
pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet 
and drippingly juicy. 
 
atemoya (ah-teh-moh-ee-yah) - a fruit that is about the size of a large 
sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like 
surface. it has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded 
with large black seeds. its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango 
and vanilla. makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand. 
 
aubergine - see eggplant 
 
bagel - chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in 
diameter. the origin is russian-jewish. can come with many types of 
toppings on it. dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, 
garlic, poppy seeds etc. flavours can also be kneaded into the dough. 
on the us east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be 
used as a sandwich bread. 
 
balsamic vinegar - made in italy from white trebbiano grape juice that 
is aged in barrels until it is dark in colour and pungently sweet. 
frequently used in salad dressings or marinades. 
 
basmati rice (bahs-mah-tee) - a perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain 
rice with a finer texture than regular rice. often called for in indian 
and middle eastern dishes. 
 
beetroot - called beet in us. the red, succulent root of a biennial 
plant (beta vulgaris). often dressed with vinegar and served cold and 
sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts. 
 
bell pepper - see capsicum 
 
bermuda onion - a large sweet onion with several regional names. may 
also be known as spanish onion, and possibly 1015 onion. 
 
berry sugar - caster sugar 
 
biscuits - in the uk, equivalent of us cookies (small, sweet cakes). in 
the us, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour, milk, and shortening, 
usually 
served with breakfast - small, and similar to what much of the world refers 
to 
as 'scones'. 
 
black bean - also called (black) turtle bean, mexican black bean, 
spanish black bean, frijole negro. 
 
black treacle - see section 1.5 
 
boston bean - see navy bean. 
 
bouquet garni - a bundle of herbs tied with a string. generally includes 
thyme, parsley, bay leaves. often, celery is included, too. sometimes, 
also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. used in various recipes. 
the bundle is removed when the cooking is complete. 
 
brinjal - see eggplant 
 
broasting - a cooking process trademarked by the broaster company of 
beloit, wis. it requires the use of the broaster stainless steel 
pressure fryer, as well as the company-produced marinade, seasonings, 
coatings and condiments. it is a high-pressure cooking method that is 
supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the 
outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either. 
 
broccolrabe - a green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. looks 
like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. the leaves, stems and florets 
are eaten. really good sautéed with garlic and olive oil and served 
over pasta. also known as italian broccoli, rabe, rapini. 
 
burdock - known in japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a 
rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour 
and tender-crisp texture. burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and 
used in soups, and with vegetables and meats. 
 
cabanossi - a salami-type sausage popular in central, eastern and 
southern europe. 
 
cannellino bean (kan-eh-lee-no) - (plural: cannelini) large, white 
italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. they are 
used in italian soups and salads. 
 
canola oil - see rapeseed oil 
 
capsicum - a large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. can be 
orange, red, yellow, green or black. also known as bell pepper. 
 
castor/caster sugar - see section 1.5 
 
catsup - see ketchup 
 
celeriac (seh-ler-ay-ak) - this rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is 
actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its 
root. it's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a 
cross between strong celery and parsley. often called for raw and 
shredded in salads or added to soups and stews. 
 
chayote (chi-oh-tay) - also known as mirliton. this gourd-like fruit is 
about the size and shape of a very large pear. under the pale green 
skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. they can be cooked like 
any summer squash or used raw in salads. chayote seeds are edible, too. 
 
chicken maryland - in australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh 
and drumstick attached. in the us, refers to any parts of chicken, 
crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy. 
 
chickpeas - cicer arietinum. also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans. 
 
chinese parsley - see cilantro 
 
chinese vermicelli - also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane 
noodles or harusame. these translucent, thin noodles are made of the 
starch of green mung beans. they are soaked in water to soften before 
adding to recipes for side dishes. if added to soup they do not need to 
be presoaked. they can also be deep-fried. 
 
chipotle chile (chih-poht-lay) - this is a dried, smoked jalapeño. 
chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. because 
they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in 
recipes. 
 
chorizo (chor-ee-zoh) - a highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely 
ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can 
be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in mexican- or spanish-style 
recipes. 
 
cider - widely varying definitions! a drink (almost) always made from 
pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. us usage is 
typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. if in 
doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean. 
 
cilantro - the leaf of the coriander plant. also called chinese/thai/ 
mexican parsley, and green coriander. 
 
clotted cream - traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min) 
milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about 
82 degrees c, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and 
then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms. 
 
cockles - clams 
 
conch - a mollusc gastropod - "strombus" - abundant in us only off 
florida keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now). 
most now comes from caribbean islands such as turks and caicos, 
trinidad, or honduras. one conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb 
approx. these sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound. 
these steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin 
(to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters. 
 
confectioner's sugar - uk icing sugar 
 
cordial - in the us, a synonym for liqueur. similarly in france and 
belgium (e.g. cognac, grand marnier). in uk, nz, australia, a thick 
syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give 
a non-alcoholic fruit drink. 
 
corn flour (us) - finely ground cornmeal, seen in southern recipes. 
 
cornflour (uk and commonwealth) - a starch usu. made from wheat. used 
to thicken sauces etc. also called cornstarch. 
 
cornmeal - ground corn (maize). 
 
courgette - see zucchini 
 
couscous - semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny 
balls. it makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of 
being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it 
is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than 
rice. best known for its use in the traditional north african dish of 
the same name. 
 
cream of tartar - a potassium salt of tartaric acid. it is a substance 
found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine 
making. it is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour, 
in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it 
reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter. 
 
cream of wheat - also called farina. 
 
crÈme fraÎche - pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has 
been added. used in french cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic 
without actually being sour. often used on ice cream in france in 
belgium after beating with sugar. 
 
cremini (kray-mee-nee) - also called crimini or portabellini. a darker 
brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white 
mushroom (agaricus bisporus). they have a fuller flavour than white 
mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. the portobello (also 
portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom. 
 
daikon (di-kuhn) - from the japanese words dai (large) and kon (root), 
this vegetable is a large asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. it 
is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of 
ways, such as in a stir-fry. 
 
desiccated coconut - dried coconut shreds, similar to us coconut 
shreds. in the us, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so 
common in other countries. 
 
digestive biscuits - a wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste. 
can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same 
thing. 
 
donax - clams. 
 
double cream - see section 1.3 
 
edamame (eh-dah-mah-meh). the japanese name for fresh soybeans that 
usually are bright to dark green. they can be found frozen and should 
be steamed in salted water. when the beans are removed from the pod 
they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. discard the pod. the beans can 
be eaten as a snack or added to other asian dishes, like stir-frys. 
 
eggplant - a purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. called brinjal in 
parts of india and aubergine in various other places. 
 
escargot - snails. they can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine. 
escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. the edible 
snails of france have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2 
inches diameter. 
 
essence/extract - while the words may be used interchangeably us-uk all 
essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. a stock is a 
water extract of food. other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl 
alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. wine and beer are vegetable 
or fruit stocks. a common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in 
asian cooking (yulada). oils and water essences are becoming popular as 
sauce substitutes. a common water essence is vegetable stock. a broth 
is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. beef tea is shin 
beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for 
12-24 hours. most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. not 
possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but 
vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. there are also emulsions lemon 
pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). oils, such as 
orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in 
sealed container. distilled oils are not extracts or essences. attar of 
rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil. 
 
farina - see cream of wheat 
 
fava/broad beans - favas as a green vegetable are popular in europe. in 
the north, e.g. britain and holland they are called 'broad beans' and 
grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in italy they are 
planted in fall and harvested in january, and also planted in january 
and eaten in april and may. they are grown for animal forage in italy 
as well. they come in various sizes, but in general they are large and 
flat. 
 
feijÃo - portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. not to be 
confused with: 
 
feijoa - a waxy green fruit about 3" long. although it is not a guava 
you may know it as a pineapple guava. feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen 
shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. it thrives in subtropical regions but is 
hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. they are either 
eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces & 
chutneys. 
 
filberts - see hazelnuts 
 
five-spice - a blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & szechuan 
pepper, used in chinese cooking. 
 
flageolet (fla-zhoh-lay) - also called fayot. these tiny, tender french 
kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a 
classic accompaniment to lamb. 
 
fromage blanc - literally, 'white cheese' in french. smooth, creamy 
low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly 
sweet-and-sour taste. 
 
galangal - used in thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger 
in many ways. tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, 
chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut 
milk. 
 
garbanzo beans - see chickpeas 
 
graham crackers - a wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda 
taste. can be substituted for digestive biscuits but are not exactly 
the same thing. 
 
granulated sugar - see section 1.5 
 
gravlax - also called gravad lax. scandinavian cured salmon. 'gravad' 
literally means 'buried'. originally, salmon and other fish was 
'buried' in the ground, or under snow and ice, to preserve it and to 
keep it cool. now, the salmon is cured in salt-sugar-pepper-dill mixture 
while under refrigeration. 
 
green onions - see scallions 
 
green shallots - an inaccurate but occasionally used name for scallions. 
 
grill - in the uk, the same as us broiler; in the us, a device for 
cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors. also see broiling. 
 
grits - usually a breakfast item in the us southern region. made from 
the kernel of corn. when corn has been soaked in lye and the casing has 
been removed it becomes hominy. the lye is rinsed out very well and the 
corn is left to harden. then the swollen hominy is ground up to the 
texture of tiny pellets. grits are cooked very much like rice, i.e. 
boiled in water, usually with some salt (except you must stir grits). 
butter is most commonly added after cooking. it's used as a side dish 
for a good old fashioned southern breakfast. eggs are frequently mixed 
in with the grits (after having been served separately). sometimes they 
are made with cheese and garlic for a casserole. they are also served 
with gravy, shrimps, etc. 
 
habaÑero pepper - a type of hot chili. the scotch bonnet pepper is 
similar. 
 
half and half - a mixture of half cream and half whole milk 
 
hard rolls - a sandwich type of roll that is a little crusty on the 
outside and soft on the inside. can be made with poppy seeds or sesame 
seeds or plain. often called a kaiser roll. 
 
haricot - bean, in french. haricot blanc: white bean, usually dried. 
h. gris: green string bean mottled with purplish black; also called 
pélandron. h. rouge: red kidney bean. h. vert: green bean, usually 
fresh, also called french bean. 
 
harissa - harissa is a paste of chilis and garlic used to enhance north 
african food (and is fairly popular in other parts of the mideast, 
though it is probably of berber origin). it is fairly similar to the 
indonesian sambal olek. 
 
hazelnuts - a small nut with a hard, glossy shell. also known as 
filberts. 
 
heavy cream - see section 1.3 
 
herbes de provence - a mixture of dried herbs widely used in (french) 
cooking. consists of thyme, oregano, summer savory and marjoram. 
bayleaf is often included, too. depending on the dish, some or more of 
the following can also be included: fennel, rosemary, basil, tarragon, 
sage, lavender. 
 
hijiki (hee-jee-kee) - a type of dried black seaweed with an anise-type 
flavour that's reconstituted in water and used as a vegetable in soups 
and other dishes. 
 
hing - also known as asafoetida, and devil's dung. a light brown resi 
(ID: 1576) Mirror: rec.food.recipes: Sat, Aug 20, 2005


Recipes by Category
AppetizersBean SaladsBeansBiscuits
BreadsBrowniesBurgersCakes
CasserolesCheeseChickenChili
CobblersCookiesCrockpotDips
DressingsFruit SaladsJamsJellies
MarinadesMoussesMuffinsPancakes
PastaPasta SaladsPastriesPesto
PiesPilafsPizzaPolenta
Potato SaladsPreservesPuddingsRelishes
RiceSaladsSalsasSalmon
SandwichesSaucesSconesSnacks
SoupsSpicesSpreadsStews
StocksStuffingTartsTrifles
VeganVegetarianWaffles


Recipes by Region
AfricanAmishArmenianAustralian
BasqueBelgianBrazilianBritish
BurmeseCajunCanadianCaribbean
ChineseDanishDutchEgyptian
EthiopianFilipinoFinnishFrench
GermanGreekHawaiianHungarian
IndianIndonesianIrishItalian
JapaneseKoreanLebaneseMexican
Middle EasternMoroccanNorwegianPersian
PeruvianPolishPortugueseRussian
ScottishSerbianSingaporeSpanish
SwedishThaiTibetanTurkish
UkrainianVietnameseWelsh
Related Recipes
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file
rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file

>> More Related Recipes